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Informations et ressources sur les pollinisateurs

Bee extinction: Why we're saving the wrong bees
08:35
This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure |  Deep Look
03:49

This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure | Deep Look

Most flowering plants are more than willing to spread their pollen around. But some flowers hold out for just the right partner. Bumblebees and other buzz pollinators know just how to handle these stubborn flowers. They vibrate the blooms, shaking them until they give up the nutritious pollen. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * In the summertime, the air is thick with the low humming of bees delivering pollen from one flower to the next. If you listen closely, a louder buzz may catch your ear. This sound is the key to a secret stash of pollen that some flowers hide deep within their anthers, the male parts of the plant. Only pollinators that buzz in just the right way can vibrate tiny grains out of minuscule holes at the top of the anthers for a protein-rich snack. The strategy, called buzz-pollination, is risky. But it’s also critical to human agriculture. Tomatoes, potatoes and eggplants need wild populations of buzz pollinators, such as bumblebees, to produce fruit. Honeybees can’t do it. Plants need a way to get the pollen — basically sperm — to the female parts of another flower. Most plants lure animal pollinators to spread these male gametes by producing sugary nectar. The bee laps up the sweet reward, is dusted with pollen and passively delivers it to the next bloom. In contrast, buzz-pollinated flowers encourage bees to eat the pollen directly and hope some grains will make it to another flower. The evolutionary strategy is baffling to scientists. “The flower is almost like playing hard to get,” says Anne Leonard, a biologist at the University of Nevada, Reno who studies buzz pollination. “It’s intriguing because these buzz-pollinated plants ask for a huge energy investment from the bees, but don’t give much back.” --- What is buzz pollination? Most flowering plants use sugary nectar as bait to attract bees and other pollinators, which get coated in pollen along the way. And since bees are messy, they inadvertently scatter some of that pollen onto the female part of the next flower they visit. But some flowers lock their pollen up in their anthers, the male parts of the flower, instead of giving it away freely. The only way for the pollen to escape is through small holes called pores. Some pollinators like bumblebees (but not honeybees) are able to vibrate the flower’s anthers which shakes up the pollen and causes it to spew out of the pores. The bumblebee collects the pollen and uses it as a reliable and protected source of protein. --- What important crops use buzz pollination to make food? The most important crops that use buzz pollination are potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, eggplants, cranberries and blueberries --- What animals are capable of buzz pollination? Many types of bees engage in buzz pollination, also called sonication. The most common is probably the bumblebee. Honeybees generally don’t use buzz pollination. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/07/19/this-vibrating-bumblebee-unlocks-a-flowers-hidden-treasure/ ---+ For more information: Anne Leonard Lab, University of Nevada, Reno | Department of Biology http://www.anneleonard.com/buzz-pollination/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rafdHxBwIbQ Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Why Don't Other Animals Wear Glasses? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhubEq6W9GE Gross Science: The World's Most Expensive Fungus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV4WHFU2Id8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook
Smart Gardening for Pollinators
01:04:58
Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look
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Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look

Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Because it's hoarding protein. Not just for itself, but for the butterfly it will become and every egg that butterfly will lay. And it's about to lose its mouth... as it wriggles out of its skin during metamorphosis. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * That caterpillar in your backyard is chewing through your best leaves for a good reason. “Caterpillars have to store up incredible reserves of proteins,” said Carol Boggs, an ecologist at the University of South Carolina. “Nectar doesn’t have much protein. Most of the protein that goes to making eggs has to come from larval feeding.” Caterpillars are the larval stage of a butterfly. Their complete transformation to pupa and then to butterfly is a strategy called holometaboly. Humans are in the minority among animals in that we don’t go through these very distinct, almost separate, lives. We start out as a smaller version of ourselves and grow bigger. But from an evolutionary point of view, the way butterflies transform make sense. “You have a larva that is an eating machine,” said Boggs. “It’s very well-suited to that. Then you’re turning it into a reproduction machine, the butterfly.” Once it becomes a butterfly it will lose its mouth, grow a straw in its place and go on a liquid diet of sugary nectar and rotten fruit juices. Its main job will be to mate and lay eggs. Those eggs started to develop while it was a pupa, using protein that the caterpillar stored by gorging on leaves. We think of leaves as carbohydrates, but the nitrogen they contain makes them more than one quarter protein, said Boggs. -- What are the stages of a butterfly? Insects such as butterflies undergo a complete transformation, referred to by scientists as holometaboly. A holometabolous insect has a morphology in the juvenile state which is different from that in the adult and which undergoes a period of reorganization between the two, said Boggs. The four life stages are egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (also known as chrysalis) and butterfly. -- What if humans developed like butterflies? “We’d go into a quiescent period when we developed different kind of eating organs and sensory organs,” said Boggs. “It would be as if we went into a pupa and developed straws as mouths and developed more elaborate morphology for smelling and developed wings. It brings up science fiction images.” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/07/11/why-is-the-very-hungry-caterpillar-so-dang-hungry/ ---+ For more information: Monarch Watch: http://www.monarchwatch.org California Pipevine Swallowtail Project: https://www.facebook.com/CaliforniaPipevineSwallowtail/ A forum organized by Tim Wong, who cares for the butterflies in the California Academy of Sciences’ rainforest exhibit. Wong’s page has beautiful photos and videos of California pipevine swallowtail butterflies at every stage – caterpillar, pupa and butterfly – and tips to create native butterfly habitat. ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: What Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Magnificent Blue? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Ts7CsJDpg This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj8pFX9SOXE In the Race for Life, Which Human Embryos Make It? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mv_kuwQvoc ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Did the First Flower Bloom? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13aUo5fEjNY CrashCourse: The History of Life on Earth - Crash Course Ecology #1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjE-Pkjp3u4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. #deeplook #caterpillars #butterflies

"Il serait difficile d'imaginer un livre plus rempli d'informations dont nous avons besoin pour sauver nos abeilles indigènes. Des conseils d'identification utiles aux gammes de taille corporelle, à la distribution saisonnière, aux 99 espèces d'arbres, d'arbustes et de plantes vivaces préférées par 27 genres de nos abeilles les plus courantes, Heather Holm couvre tout. C'est le livre que les biologistes de la pollinisation et les propriétaires attendaient !"  

 
Douglas Talmy,  auteur de Bringing Nature Home 

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